We’ve all heard it doesn’t exactly offer an athletic edge, but how bad is drinking alcohol for athletic training, performance, and recovery? Alcohol has different effects on men and women so after some general information, I also share sex-specific insights.
Late-night drinking inhibits good sleep, which affects the next day’s training. If you’re going to drink, have it with dinner rather than right before bed to improve sleep quality.
Drinks that contain congeners (chemicals produced during the fermentation process that add flavor and aroma) red wine, cognac, whiskey, are more likely to cause a hangover than other alcoholic beverages. Opt for something like white wine with dinner.
Alcohol is a diuretic, one unit (10g) of alcohol stimulates the formation of 100 mL of excess urine. Strong spirits, such as whiskey, with a high alcohol content cause more water loss than they contribute. On the other hand, beer has less alcohol by volume and more water, so dehydrated athletes can enjoy a beer or two without further dehydration. Bonus points if you have water and salt (pretzels or popcorn anyone?) along with beer to facilitate the rehydration process.
Alcohol is a depressant, it slows reaction time, causes dehydration, impairs hand-eye coordination, accuracy and balance so drinking excessively before or around an event is more likely to put you in the medical tent than on the podium, but modest amounts of alcohol with a well-balanced meal is unlikely to have a negative impact.
Recommendations for Men
Four or more drinks slows muscle repair, impairs protein synthesis and adaptation processes. Moreover, alcohol has been shown to impair growth hormone production and increase the conversion of testosterone to estrogen in the liver, which leaves less of it in circulation.
1-3 drinks has actually been shown to increase testosterone in the hours after exercise whereas 4-8 drinks can lower testosterone levels by 18-40%. Testosterone normally recovers within a day from excessive drinking of 4+ drinks. Up to a few drinks a day will have a small effect on hormones with a less than 10% decrease in testosterone. A high percentage of male athletes that test with ABT have low testosterone levels. Small lifestyle modifications, such as moderating alcohol consumption, can have a big impact in keeping testosterone levels optimal for performance.
Exhaustive cardio before drinking may further prolong the depressing effects on testosterone, so skip the post-workout drinks if it was a particularly tough session.
Takeaways for Men:
Overall, alcohol’s acute effects on recovery are surprisingly mild, but the long-term effects from impaired protein synthesis and hormone production are more detrimental.
Multiple studies show drinking alcohol increases testosterone in women and drinking more alcohol is associated with higher overall testosterone levels.
Alcohol is beneficial for estrogen levels, but unfortunately light drinking doesn’t have much of an effect, research shows 4-7 drinks can increase estrogen acutely by up to 66%. However, it’s not recommended to consume this much alcohol as it’s related to liver toxicity that causes a disruption in hormonal metabolism.
Takeaway for Women:
Alcohol may be less detrimental to women compared to men. It’s a good idea to limit alcohol to no more than one drink per day.
Whether or not you decide to drink is up to you. One or two drinks may not be detrimental but avoid excessive drinking, especially late at night and close to intense training. Cheers!